Real post nsa fun

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Open curtains and a careless attitude. But are Dutch reactions as aloof as often claimed? This study provides an in-depth overview of privacy attitudes in the Dutch debate about the National Security Agency NSA leaks, showing a greater variety of sentiments than anticipated.

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A qualitative frame analysis and a quantitative descriptive analysis resulted in six frames, which convey distinct privacy attitudes. Online and offline as well as professional and non-journalistic content in the debate displays a different distribution of frames. Dutch discussions about the NSA revelations often display a trade-off narrative balancing safety against privacy, and include de legitimisation strategies.

These outcomes are in line with studies about mediated surveillance debates, which indicates that privacy attitudes transcend national boundaries. However, the inclusion of user-generated content adds an individual dimension to the existing body of research and reveals a personal perspective on surveillance issues. Information from these files is published in international newspapers, starting with The Guardian on June 6, Greenwaldrevealing how the NSA collected incomprehensible amounts of data from millions of people worldwide.

In the name of its foreign surveillance mission, the NSA collaborated with intelligence services, social networking sites, software developers, network providers and other parties to collect and monitor cell phone locations, contact lists, s, conversations and other personal data Angwin and Larson The NSA practices are a form of surveillance: the collection and processing of personal data for influencing or managing purposes Lyon Unsurprisingly, the NSA revelations led to numerous news articles and public discussions.

While the international press was captivated by the NSA revelations, reactions in Dutch newspapers seemed reassuring. De VolkskrantDecember 24, However, blogs and tech websites seemed to show more agitated reactions. People spoke out against a violation of privacy rights and were shocked by the role of national security agencies and commercial actors in the NSA surveillance of European citizens.

This article aims to provide an in-depth examination of Dutch privacy attitudes and viewpoints in public debates about the NSA revelations and to establish which sentiments prevail in professional news coverage as well as non-journalistic online contributions. The analysis and findings not only complement academic research about privacy attitudes and surveillance debates, but are also relevant for actors and organisations concerned with privacy issues and online civil rights.

The first theoretical section considers the definition of privacy as a social issue, analyses of surveillance media representations and the Dutch context of the public debate at hand. The subsequent methodological section covers an explanation of the data sample and the analysis, followed by a detailed description of the resulting frames and their connection to theoretical notions of Real post nsa fun that address the societal and individual impacts of digital surveillance. Privacy is a complex concept that encompasses various views about human freedom, rights, personal values and information flows Bennett ; Rosenzweig Building on one of the earliest notions of privacy that emphasised the right to be let alone Warren and Brandeislegal scholars conceive of privacy as control-over-information and focus on personal information as property see the critical review by Solove Philosophers take a different approach by exploring the boundaries between the public and the private and by addressing privacy as a personal value.

In this view, privacy is a vital component of human interaction and relationships Schoeman On the other hand, descriptive and normative forms of privacy concerning information control are considered Tavani A critical perspective addresses the politics of privacy, focusing on the dominance of corporations and governments in a digital economy, characterised by an unequal division of power and data ownership Allmer Real post nsa fun Fuchs ; Sandoval Technical scholars propose more fluid notions of privacy to adapt to new technological advances Finn, Wright, and Friedewaldincorporating the role of both individual and institutional control and responsibilities Whitley They stress that problems related to different types of privacy require customised solutions and configurations Van der Ploeg Because the implications of massive data collection transcend the individual level, this study focuses on a notion of privacy as a social issue as proposed by Margulisinspired by Regan Individual, societal and governmental interests in privacy are included in this broader social perspective which explores how privacy is societally important in three ways.

First, there is a common or shared interest in privacy and in a right to privacy.

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Threats to privacy almost exclusively arise in relationships between the individual and private or governmental organisations, and take place in the public and societal realm The NSA revelations are discussed in this public and societal realm where relations between individuals and governmental security institutions, as well as commercial organisations, are at stake.

In the current data-driven society wherein social and working life are mediated and mediatised to a large extent, threats to privacy have increased tremendously.

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A recent Pew survey showed that attitudes towards privacy can be complex. A year after the NSA leaks, many American citizens believed that online privacy became impossible and felt that they lost control over how personal information is collected. Yet, they are willing to trade off their personal data for access to free services Madden et al. Media attention to surveillance technologies intensified in the last two decades Barnard-Willswhile it also became more critical Finn and McCahill ; Hronesova, Caulfield, and Guasti Whereas both UK and Canadian newspaper coverage of the introduction of CCTV closed-circuit television was almost exclusively supportive of surveillance Greenberg and Hier ; McCahilllater studies show more variety in news discourses.

However, media representations of the NSA revelations differ distinctly from preceding media coverage because they revolve around a variety of combined surveillance technologies used on an unprecedented scale. Legitimising and delegitimising strategies play an important role in UK news broadcasts Lischka Existing studies about media representations of surveillance mainly focus on the United Kingdom. In light of the aforementioned analyses of media coverage of NSA revelations, this article explores the Dutch news coverage while also considering the online reactions of citizens.

The next section provides historical and cultural context to the Dutch public debate. The Dutch public Real post nsa fun offers an interesting case study for the examination of privacy attitudes.

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History offers three explanations for a trusting, care-free attitude that might have led to an indifferent stance towards the NSA revelation. First, Dutch history is characterised by the development of an early democracy and a democratic corporatist media system. Moderate political views prevail in the public debate Hallin and Mancini In this, the Dutch situation differs from the United Kingdom, where press opposed the use of identity cards after the Second World War Agar and where the ubiquity of CCTV cameras led to recurring public debates e.

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McCahill Second, Dutch citizens never experienced far-reaching state surveillance and therefore lack a public memory of totalitarian surveillance measures infringing personal freedom. This sharply contrasts with the German case, where reactions to the NSA revelations occurred against the historical backdrop of two succeeding dictatorships Schulze Third, the Dutch are well-known for their open culture which is exemplified by their large windows with open curtains. According to BoltDutch citizens keep their curtains open either to assure their neighbours that they have nothing to hide or because they are not ashamed of their everyday lives.

Simultaneously, the open curtains allow for a form of social and informal surveillance that citizens consent to and in which Real post nsa fun participate to increase a sense of safety Vera While online privacy arguably transcends the elementary choice of not hiding yourself, the relevance of this openness of Dutch culture also emerges from the analysis.

For almost half 48 per cent of Dutch respondents providing personal information is not a big issue, and the Dutch are among the least concerned European citizens when it comes to not having control over their personal data. These surveycombined with an open culture, moderate political debates and history, imply that the Dutch are indifferent towards privacy issues. This empirical study anticipates more complex Dutch privacy attitudes and is therefore based on an explorative research method.

The next section explains how an inductive frame analysis is combined with a descriptive quantitative analysis to distil distinct privacy attitudes. Attitudes about privacy were distilled in the first stage, whereas the second level of analysis allowed for the interpretation of the role and extent of the attitudes in the public debate.

The research de includes an inductive frame analysis phase 1 and a descriptive content analysis phase 2 of reactions about the NSA revelations which were published or posted in the two weeks after the first revelations, June 6 to 20, The sample is based on the first two weeks of the public debate to enable an analysis of all retrievable initial responses to Real post nsa fun revelations which are not yet influenced by external parties or events. The former includes articles and blogs written by professional authors: journalists, editors and professional bloggers connected to a company, organisation or association ; whereas the latter is published or posted by bloggers on a personal notemembers of the audience in letters to the editor, and comments or reactions to online content and forum participants.

The sample was constructed by the use of two search strategies.

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This part of the sample includes forum thre on websites like the youth-oriented Fok forum. All articles were filtered for privacy attitudes: text sections wherein authors describe privacy in relation to the NSA revelations. Irrelevant were omitted to end up with a selection of responses that displayed one or more attitudes about privacy. The resulting sample see Table 1 consists of offline newspaper articles and online contributions.

The sample comprises items from professional authors and items that qualify as user-generated content.

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The data sample is highly diverse. For instance, news articles are often longer than forum thre, and blog authors take a more personal approach than news wire articles. However, this diversity does not hinder the comparability of because the analysis focused on mapping privacy sentiments and actors in the public debate instead of comparing full articles. A twofold inductive frame analysis was conducted inspired by grounded theory; see, among others, Strauss and Corbin ; Van Real post nsa fun Inductive frame analysis enables the inclusion of general as well as more context-specific attitudes and viewpoints.

The process contained three levels of analysis. First, all meaningful text elements were listed; these are the framing devices Gamson and Modigliani which take the form of metaphors e. The resulting clusters were labelled in a frame matrix see Table 2. Subsequently, a descriptive content analysis was conducted to map the roles and the distribution of the resulting frames in the public debate. In total, contributions were coded in SPSS, noting the author, origin and media type, listing all the actors that express an opinion about privacy and interpreting privacy attitudes according to the six frames that were distilled in the frame analysis.

The coding process was guided by a codebook, which is included in Appendix A. Because coding for frames in other words, deciding which specific frame is present in an article or online reaction can be subject to interpretation, an intercoder reliability test was conducted for the frame-variable. The test resulted in a sufficient Krippendorff alpha score of 0. For 27 items, the contribution proved to be too ambiguous or too short to decide on a frame. The inductive frame analysis resulted in six distinct frames.

The descriptive content analysis mapped the online and offline recurrence and use of these frames by professional and non-journalistic contributors to the Dutch public debate about the NSA revelations.

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The Dutch public debate appears far less indifferent than expected, since the nothing to hide -frame is visible in only 7 per cent of all contributions see Table 3. In contrast, the most salient frame is the activist attitude 22 per cent which aims to empower the user and strives for the protection of privacy as a fundamental right. Two other, fundamentally opposed frames also play an important role.

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